Saturday, November 23, 2013

Emeror Meiji and Meiji Era of Meiji Restoration - Japan



Emperor Meiji (3 November 1852 – 30 July 1912), or Meiji the Great  was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 3 February 1867 until his death on 30 July 1912.


The Meiji period (Meiji-jidai), or  the Meiji era, is a Japanese history period  which extended from September 1868 through July 1912.During this period Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations.


The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji (enlightened) leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of:

Establishment of deliberative assemblies
Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs
The revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment
Replacement of "evil customs" with the "just laws of nature" and
An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.




In 1871, the Emperor announced that domains were entirely abolished, as Japan was organized into 72 prefectures.



Industrial Development During the Meiji Period

The Industrial Revolution in Japan occurred during the Meiji period.

There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan's modernization: More than 3,000 foreign experts were employed in a variety of specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the army and navy, among others. Many Japanese students were sent overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last article of the Charter Oath of 1868: 'Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial rule.' This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government and this enhanced the power of the great zaibatsu firms such as Mitsui and Mitsubishi.

Technology was heavily borrowed and imported from the West. Japan gradually took control of much of Asia's market for manufactured goods, beginning with textiles. Importing raw materials and exporting finished products flourished—a reflection of Japan's relative poverty in raw materials.

From the onset, the Meiji rulers embraced the concept of a market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism. The private sector—in a nation with an abundance of aggressive entrepreneurs—welcomed such change.

Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy  was completed by the 1890s.

Many of the former daimyo, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum, benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging industries. Those who had been informally involved in foreign trade before the Meiji Restoration also flourished.

The government initially was involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern period. After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. Stimulated by wars and through cautious economic planning, Japan emerged from World War I as a major industrial nation.

Emperor Taisho and Taisho Era - Japan


Emperor Taishō (31 August 1879 – 25 December 1926) was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912, until his death in 1926.
The Emperor’s personal name was Yoshihito. According to Japanese customs, the emperor has no name during his reign and is only called the (present) Emperor. After his death, he will be  known by a posthumous name, the name of the era coinciding with his reign. His ruling period is called the Taisho period (literally Great Righteousness), and  he is now known as Emperor Taisho.

The Taishō period (Taishō jidai), or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926.

Important events

1912: The Taishō Emperor assumed the throne (July 30).
          General Katsura Tarō becomes prime minister for a third term (December 21).
1913:  Katsura resigned, and Admiral Yamamoto Gonnohyōe became prime minister (February 20).
1914:  Ōkuma Shigenobu becomes prime minister for a second term (April 16).
           Japan declares war on Germany, joining the Allies of World War I side (August 23).
1915: Japan sends the Twenty-One Demands to China (January 18).
1916: Terauchi Masatake becomes prime minister (October 9).
1917: Lansing-Ishii Agreement goes into effect (November 2).
1918: Siberian expedition launched (July).
          Hara Takashi becomes prime minister (September 29).
1919: March 1st Movement begins against colonial rule in Korea (March 1).
1920: Japan helps found the League of Nations.
1921: Hara is assassinated and Takahashi Korekiyo becomes prime minister (November 4).
          Hirohito becomes regent (November 29).
          Four Power Treaty is signed (December 13).
1922: Five Power Naval Disarmament Treaty is signed (February 6).
         Admiral Katō Tomosaburō becomes prime minister (June 12).
         Japan withdraws troops from Siberia (August 28).
1923: The Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo (September 1).
          Yamamoto becomes prime minister for a second term (September 2).
1924: Kiyoura Keigo becomes prime minister (January 7).
          Prince Hirohito marries Kuni no miya Nagako Nyoō  (January 26).
          Katō Takaaki becomes prime minister (June 11).
1925: General Election Law was passed, all men above age 25 gained the right to vote (May 5). Besides, Peace Preservation Law is passed.
          Princess Shigeko, Hirohito's first daughter, is born (December 9).
1926: Emperor Taishō dies; Hirohito becomes emperor (December 25).


Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Taish%C5%8D
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taish%C5%8D_period

Friday, August 16, 2013

World Tourism Crossed One Billion Arrivals in 2012

On 13 December 2012, One billionth international tourist arrival took place.
http://www.wttc.org/news-media/news-archive/2012/international-tourism-hits-one-billion/

Despite occasional shocks, international tourist arrivals have shown virtually uninterrupted growth – from 25 million in 1950, to 278 million in 1980, 528 million in 1995, and 1,035 million in 2012.



Long-term outlook
• International tourist arrivals worldwide will increase by 3.3% a year from 2010 to 2030 to reach 1.8 billion by 2030 according to UNWTO long term forecast Tourism Towards 2030


http://mkt.unwto.org/en/publication/unwto-tourism-highlights-2013-edition


http://dtxtq4w60xqpw.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/pdf/unwto_highlights13_en_hr_0.pdf

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

UNESCO



The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) was founded on 16 November 1945.





UNESCO’s mission is to contribute to the building of a culture of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information.

Sixty Themes of UNESCO's 60th Anniversary

2005 to 2006


1 Education for All
2 Human security
3 Education for citizenship
4 Broadening access to knowledge: from book to hypertext
5 Teachers
6 Natural disaster reduction
7 Eradicating poverty
8 Public domain and intellectual property
9 Promoting advancement of scientific knowledge
10 National education policies
11 UNESCO’s founding principles
12 Intangible Heritage
13 HIV and AIDS prevention education
14 Human rights
15 Information technology
16 Observating and understanding oceans
17 Museums and the Memory of the World
18 Managing social transformation
19 Crafts and design
20 Science and technology for development
21 Secondary and vocational education
22 Media development
23 Man and the Biosphere
24 Multilingualism
25 Cultural industries
26 Education of girls and women
27 World Heritage
28 Water management
29 Combating racism
30 Higher education
31 Sustainable development in small islands
32 Copyright
33 UNESCO and civil society
34 Freedom of information and the press
35 Anticipation and foresight
36 Cultural diversity
37 Priority Africa
38 Distance learning
39 Education for sustainable development
40 Desertification and arid zones
41 International civil service
42 The fight against doping in sport
43 Libraries and archives
44 Ethics of science and technology
45 Education through sport
46 Media pluralism
47 Cultural policies
48 Traditional knowledge
49 Acting with and for youth
50 Struggle against slavery
51 Towns and human habitats
52 Bioethics
53 Learning to live together
54 Science and Technologies policies
55 Non-formal education
56 Post-conflict reconstruction
57 Arts education
58 Dialogue among cultures, civilizations and peoples
59 Science and technology education
60 Towards knowledge societies?


http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001497/149701E.pdf

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001887/188700e.pdf

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Saturday, March 16, 2013

Kenya - Country Information



Kenya is in the continent of Africa.


Kenya lies across the equator in east-central Africa, on the coast of the Indian Ocean.

Kenya borders Somalia to the east, Ethiopia to the north, Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, and Sudan to the northwest.




Kenya Government
http://www.statehousekenya.go.ke/government/ministries.htm

March 2013 - Uhuru Kenyatta declared elected as President of Kenya

Kenya Information
Official Government Portal
http://www.information.go.ke/

e-Government - Kenya
http://www.e-government.go.ke/

Ministry of tourism
http://www.tourism.go.ke/

http://www.nationalheritage.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=39&Itemid=70

Global General Knowledge - Current Events - 2013



March 2013

Ban on Porn!  European Parliament to vote on 12 March 2013

Uhuru Kenyatta declared elected as President of Kenya


February 2013

18 Feb: Ecuador - Incumbent President of Ecuador, Mr. Rafael Correa, secured a landslide second reelection.